About the Author s. The Author s. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
HIV self-testing HIVSTa process in which an individual performs a HIV rapid diagnostic test and interprets the result in private, is an emerging approach that is well accepted, potentially cost-effective and empowering for those who may not Young female sex-workers FSW aged are at high risk of HIV due to high numbers of sexual partners, difficulty negotiating condom use, increased risk of gender-based violence, and limited access to services. Here we describe changes in
Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18—22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways.
It is commonly assumed that sexual risk factors for heterosexual HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, such as multi-partner sex, paid sex and co-infections, become less important as HIV epidemics mature and prevalence increases. We conducted a systematic review of 68 African epidemiological studies from to involving 17, HIV positive adults and 73, controls. We used random-effects methods and stratified results by gender, time, background HIV prevalence rates and other variables.
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The programme is built on four strategic pillars: policy development; policy advocacy; social accountability monitoring SAM of SRH; and regional evidence and knowledge sharing. These include reducing new infections toandby and respectively. The focus is on strengthening regional KP networks and community systems in the region.
However, other regions have struggled. Africa has been the continent most impacted by the epidemic. Here, we provide an overview of the epidemics in these African nations, which have been particularly hard hit.
Gender inequality has a profound impact on the lives of children in Eastern and Southern Africa. Many children across the region are raised by female caregivers, and many do not have active contact with their fathers. Differentiated treatment according to gender is particularly acute during adolescence, when many girls are faced with the prospect of marriage often before reaching the age of 18adolescent pregnancy, and gender-based violence, as well as a heightened risk of HIV transmission. The risk of dropping out of school is high for girls at this age.
This article examines the failure of the condom as a HIV prevention device in marriage relationships in southern Africa. Where male control over the sexual realm has seen the male condom become largely disused, the need to understand male rejection of condoms becomes vital. To conduct its examination, this article adopts a framework of symbology.